Humanoid Robot - Torobo

Torobo is a robot developed to accelerate research into industrial applications of full-body humanoid robots.


Torobo has the following features and can be used for research on automation of tasks that involve active contact with people, the environment, and objects, research on applications for next-generation force-controllable dual-armed robots, and research on applying machine learning to robots.

Size and strength equivalent to humans

With a height of 1660 mm, a reach of 680 mm, and a cart width of 625 mm, the size of the robot is close to that of humans. The payload of one arm is 8 kg at the worst-case holding posture and 20 kg at the instantaneous maximum holding force (when the elbow is bent at a right angle), which are sufficient to conduct robotics R&Ds to replace human work.

Sufficient joint configuration for a wide variety of tasks

The joint configuration of 7-axis dual arms, 3-axis waist (pitch, pitch, yaw), 3-axis neck (yaw, pitch, roll), and 4-axis undercarriage (omni-directional mobile base) enables the robot to do tasks with a range of motion similar to human beings in living and working spaces of people.

Torque sensing and impedance control of arm and waist

Equipped with torque sensors at all joints of the arms and waist, the joint torque control enables safe contact stops and force-controlling task executions. Assembly tasks, cooking, and physical interaction with humans can be performed more safely and skillfully.

ROS support

Because it is ROS-compatible, the robot in Gazebo (a simulator for ROS) and the actual robot can be operated using the same program. This makes it possible to safely verify the robot's behavior. In addition, trajectory planning and self-interference detection using the MoveIt! are implemented as standard.


Basic performance

This video shows the basic performance of Torobo. *Direct teaching after 2:20 is not included in the basic package due to in-house research.

Applied movement (two-handed peg-in-hole)

This is a demo of peg-in-hole using impedance control. Developing these technologies will also enable automation of assembly tasks.

Applied movement (clearing a desk) made by Waseda University

This is a demo developed under the JST Moonshot R&D Project. Force control is used for wiping the desk. The copyright of the video belongs to Waseda University.

Applied movement (ultrasonography) made by Tokyo Women's Medical University

This is a demo developed under the JST Moonshot R&D Project. Force control is used for pressing the ultrasound probe. The copyright of the video belongs to Tokyo Women's Medical University.


Sensors (head)
  • Wide-angle stereo camera x 1
  • Fisheye camera x 1
  • Depth camera x 1
  • Stereo microphone x 1
Effectors (head)
  • Speaker x 1
Height 1660 mm
Weight approx. 160 kg
Payload Worst posture: 8 kg (single arm)
Instantaneous maximum: 20 kg (with elbow bent at right angle)
External terminals (back of the robot)
  • Digital input x 7
  • Digital output x 7
  • Analog input: x 8
  • Analog output x 2
  • Power supply for external equipment: 5V-DC/3A, 12V-DC/2A
  • Ethernet x 2
  • USB 3.0 x 8
  • Charger connection terminal
Tool flange (tip of the arm)
  • 24V DC power supply terminal x 1
  • General-purpose signal wire x 8
Onboard computer
  • PC for robot control
  • PC for image acquisition, etc.
Power source Built-in battery (continuous operation while charging is also possible)
Battery continuous operation time Up to approx. 3 hours




The basic functions required to move a force-controllable humanoid robot are implemented. Torobo can utilize impedance control in a Cartesian coordinate system, fall prevention by monitoring ZMP, a state machine for connecting multiple movements, and safety stop based on interference detection. Torobo's software is based on ROS. Therefore, in addition to the easy use of the above functions, state visualization with RViz, trajectory planning using a ROS standard software MoveIt!, and logging and saving of the robot's sensor information (camera images, joint angles, joint torques, etc.) are available.

Basic Package and Optional Extras

Basic Package

  • Humanoid robot - Torobo
  • Battery charger
  • ROS package for Torobo
  • User's manual
  • Six months email support



Three-finger Hand

  • Three finger configuration: thumb + 2 fingers
  • One axis for each finger (3 motors in total)
  • Outputting about 10N force at fingertips
  • Rubber material attached to fingertips and palm


Four-finger Hand

  • Impedance control at each joint
  • Four-finger configuration: thumb + 3 fingers
  • Three axes for each finger (10 actuated and 3 passive joints)
  • Outputting about 8N force at fingertips
  • Rubber material and FSR pressure sensor attached to fingertips and palm


Leader-follower Control System

Noitom's motion capture system, Perception Neuron® PRO, is used. This system can be used for motion teaching for machine learning as well as remote control applications. The system provides singularity avoidance, self-interference protection, and a torque-limiting function when the robot is physically constrained (e.g., when pushing a desk from above). It also has functions to enable/disable control of the left and right arms, grippers, neck, waist, and mobile base independently.

Mapping of Operator and Robot


Leader-follower Control Demo

This is a demo video of our participation in the ANA Avatar XPRIZE, a challenge for avatar robots, as Team Synapse with NTT Communications, Waseda University, and Xela Robotics. Starting from the system preparation, the robot performs 6 required tasks remotely. At the end of the video, safety features are introduced. This technology is one of the results of our joint development since our company was selected for the Open Innovation Program by NTT Communications in 2019. Background audio noise is due to the switching power supply and will disappear if a battery is used.


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